Symptoms and Associations of COVID-19 in Pakistan A Single Centre, Descriptive Study


  • Shehrbano Ali CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore
  • Muhammad Murad Murtaza CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore
  • Marriam Nasir CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore
  • Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry Department of Community Medicine, CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore



COVID-19, pandemic, symptoms, comorbidities, SARS-CoV2


Introduction: Since SARS-CoV2 is a novel virus, not much was previously known about the disease, however recent studies have shown that it is transmitted via droplet infection and mainly affects the respiratory tract, causing symptoms of fever, fatigue and shortness of breath. Comorbidities increase risk of severe disease.

Aims & Objectives: Our study aims to determine the predominant manifestations and correlations of COVID-19 in Pakistan.

Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at CMH Lahore over ten-day duration from 1st June 2020 to 10th June 2020.

Material & Methods: Samples of 107 confirmed cases of COVID-19 was taken. Participants were administered a questionnaire by attending doctor which enquired regarding their symptoms, presence of complications, and comorbidities. Data was analyzed using SPSS 25.0. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: 77.6% of participants were male whereas 22.4% were female, with mean age 40.68 years. Symptoms commonly experienced were fever (71%), cough (32.7%), sore throat (36.4%), and myalgia (57%). Progression to complications was seen in 36 participants, most common being pneumonia (22.4%). Age of participants was significantly associated with symptoms of fever (p= 0.017), shortness of breath (p= 0.048) and fatigue (p= 0.021), and complication of pneumonia (p= 0.001). Comorbidities were associated with many symptoms and complications, most prominently cardiovascular disease was associated with development of complications like acute kidney injury (p= 0.002), cardiac failure (p= 0.005), and stroke (p= 0.005).

Conclusion: Symptoms of COVID-19 are respiratory in nature primarily, however, the virus also affects other organs like gastrointestinal tract, neurons, heart. Age and presence of comorbidities increase risk of getting more severe disease, with highest risk of complications occurring in patients with history of cardiovascular disease.




How to Cite

Shehrbano Ali, Muhammad Murad Murtaza, Marriam Nasir, Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry. Symptoms and Associations of COVID-19 in Pakistan A Single Centre, Descriptive Study. Proceedings S.Z.M.C [Internet]. 2021Nov.8 [cited 2023Feb.1];35(4):6-12. Available from: