Hepatoprotective Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Apple Cider Vinegar in Type-2 Diabetic Rat Model

Authors

  • Ruqaiyya Nazir Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
  • Muniza Saeed Postgraduate Medical Institute Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Ghulam Mustafa Armed Forces Institute of Urology, Rawalpindi.
  • Seher Naeem CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry Lahore, Pakistan
  • Hifza Noor Lodhi Rashid Latif Khan University, Lahore.
  • Sehrish Ijaz Multan Medical &Dental College, Multan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47489/szmc.v38i1.423

Keywords:

Apple cider vinegar, Extra virgin olive oil, Type-2 diabetes

Abstract

Introduction: Type-2 diabetes mellitus, a major public health problem, is caused by insulin resistance. In diabetics, chronic hyperglycemia results in formation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients is responsible for hepatic damage because it causes activation of several pro-inflammatory mediators in liver. Hepatic complications of diabetes include fatty liver disease, necrosis, cirrhosis, carcinoma and liver failure.

Aims & Objectives: To determine and compare the hepatoprotective effect of extra virgin olive oil and apple cider vinegar in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetic rat model.

Place and Duration of Study: This experimental study was conducted at Animal House of Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan from May 2021 to June 2021.

Material & Methods: In this study, 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups i.e., Group I was NC (negative control), Group II PC (positive control), Group III EVOO (Extra virgin olive oil) and Group IV (Apple cider vinegar), each group having 10 rats. Diabetes was induced in all rats except the rats of NC group at the start of the study by intraperitoneal administration of injection nicotinamide, followed by injection STZ after 15 minutes. Group III was given 1ml/100gBW/ day EVOO and Group IV was given 2ml/kgBW/day diluted ACV with distilled water in 1:5 orally for 4 weeks. Terminal sampling was performed at the end of the 4th week for estimation of liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) in serum. Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version 26. p value of ? 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: On comparison with PC group, both the treatment groups showed significant decrease in serum ALT levels with p values 0.026 for EVOO and < 0.001 for ACV. Serum ALP levels were also decreased significantly in both the treated groups with p value < 0.001 for EVOO as well as for the ACV group. However, reduction in serum AST levels was nonsignificant with p values 0.082 and 0.058 in EVOO and ACV groups respectively.

Conclusion: Both EVOO and ACV have hepatoprotective effect in Type-2 diabetic rats. However, ACV is more effective.

References

Rom S, Zuluaga-Ramirez V, Gajghate S, Seliga A, Winfield M, Heldt NA, Kolpakov MA, Bashkirova YV, Sabri AK, Persidsky Y. Hyperglycemia-driven neuroinflammation compromises BBB leading to memory loss in both diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 and type 2 mouse models. Mol. Neurobiol. 2019 Mar;56(3):1883-96.

Kausar S, Humayun A, Ahmed Z, Abbas MA, Tahir

A. Effect of apple cider vinegar on glycemic control, hyperlipidemia and control on body weight in type 2 diabetes patients Health Sci. 2019;8(5):59- 74.

Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, Malanda B. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2018 Apr 1;138:271-81.

Ijaz M, Ali I, Hussain A. Diabetes mellitus in Pakistan: the past, present, and future. Int. J. Diabetes Dev. Countries. 2020 Mar;40(1):153-154.

Papachristoforou E, Lambadiari V, Maratou E, Makrilakis K. Association of glycemic indices (hyperglycemia, glucose variability, and hypoglycemia) with oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Journal of diabetes research. 2020 Oct 12;2020.

Rehman K, Akash MS. Mechanism of generation of oxidative stress and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus: how are they interlinked? Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2017 Nov;118(11):3577- 3585.

Ghanbari E, Nejati V, Khazaei M. Improvement in serum biochemical alterations and oxidative stress of liver and pancreas following use of royal jelly in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cell Journal (Yakhteh). 2016;18(3):362.

Shrestha JT, Shrestha H, Prajapati M, Karkee A, Maharjan A. Adverse effects of oral hypoglycemic agents and adherence to them among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nepal. Journal of Lumbini Medical College. 2017 Jun 29;5(1):34-40.

Laaboudi WA, Ghanam JA, Ghoumari OU, Sounni FA, Merzouki MO, Benlemlih MO. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of phenolic olive tree extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;8(12):287-291.

Saibandith B, Spencer JP, Rowland IR, Commane DM. Olive polyphenols and the metabolic syndrome. Molecules. 2017 Jun 29;22(7):1082.

Budak HN. Alteration of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content during the Eight-Week Fermentation of Apple Cider Vinegar. Horticultural Studies. 2021;38(1):39-45.

Morgan J, Mosawy S. The potential of apple cider vinegar in the management of type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Diabetes Research. 2016;5(6):129-34.

Lu Y, Chen J, Ren D, Yang X, Zhao Y. Hepatoprotective effects of phloretin against CCl4- induced liver injury in mice. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2017 Mar 4;28(2):211-222.

Cam ME, Hazar-Yavuz AN, Yildiz S, Ertas B, Adakul BA, Taskin T, Alan S, Kabasakal L. The methanolic extract of Thymus praecox subsp. skorpilii var. skorpilii restores glucose homeostasis, ameliorates insulin resistance and improves pancreatic ?-cell function on streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2019 Mar 1;231:29-38.

Balamash KS, Alkreathy HM, Al Gahdali EH, Khoja SO, Ahmad A. Comparative biochemical and histopathological studies on the efficacy of metformin and virgin olive oil against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2018 Nov 18;2018.

Omar NA, Allithy AN, El Sayed SM. Hepatoprotective and antidiabetic effects of apple cider vinegar (a prophetic medicine remedy) on the liver of male rats. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2016 Jan 1;62(1):95-104

Kouka P, Chatzieffraimidi GA, Raftis G, Stagos D, Angelis A, Stathopoulos P, Xynos N, Skaltsounis AL, Tsatsakis AM, Kouretas D. Antioxidant effects of an olive oil total polyphenolic fraction from a Greek Olea europaea variety in different cell cultures. Phytomedicine. 2018 Aug 1;47:135-42.

Amirnahavandirahbar S, Nasirzadeh MR. Biochemical effects of oleuropein in streptozotocin induced diabetic male rat. Maced Vet Rev. 2018 Oct 1;41(2):187-94.

Galvão Cândido F, Xavier Valente F, da Silva LE, Gonçalves Leão Coelho O, GouveiaPeluzio MD, GonçalvesAlfenas RD. Consumption of extra virgin olive oil improves body composition and blood pressure in women with excess body fat: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. European journal of nutrition. 2018 Oct;57(7):2445-55.

Sakr SA, Abdel-Aziz KK, El-kott AF, Khalifa HS. Ameliorative effect of olive leaves extract on hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research. 2016 Aug 22;2(8):549-60.

Sila A, Kamoun Z, Ghlissi Z, Makni M, Nasri M, Sahnoun Z, Nedjar-Arroume N, Bougatef A. Ability of natural astaxanthin from shrimp by-products to attenuate liver oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Pharmacological reports. 2015 Mar;67(2):310-316.

Halima BH, Sarra K, Houda BJ, Sonia G, Anis B, Abdallah A. Beneficial Effect of Apple Vinegar Cider on Lipid Profile in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats. Life Sci. J. 2017;14(7).

Bukhari HM, Zahran SE, Bakr ES, Sahibzadah FA, Header EA. Comparison study between drugs (orlistat and chitocal) and food supplements (green tea and apple cider vinegar) for weight loss and hepatoprotection in rats. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2021 Apr 1;83(1):1218-23.

Bouazza A, Bitam A, Amiali M, Bounihi A, Yargui L, Koceir EA. Effect of fruit vinegars on liver damage and oxidative stress in high-fat-fed rats. Pharmaceutical biology. 2016 Feb 1;54(2):260-65.

Mohammad Ghasemi F, Abbasi M, Rudkhaneei K, Aghajany-Nasab M. Beneficial effect of apple vinegar on reproductive parameters in male rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Andrologia. 2018 Oct;50(8):13065.

Downloads

Published

2024-01-31

How to Cite

1.
Ruqaiyya Nazir, Muniza Saeed, Ghulam Mustafa, Seher Naeem, Hifza Noor Lodhi, Sehrish Ijaz. Hepatoprotective Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Apple Cider Vinegar in Type-2 Diabetic Rat Model. Proceedings S.Z.M.C [Internet]. 2024 Jan. 31 [cited 2024 May 18];38(1):31-6. Available from: http://proceedings-szmc.org.pk/index.php/szmc/article/view/423