Hepatoprotective Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Apple Cider Vinegar in Type-2 Diabetic Rat Model


  • Ruqaiyya Nazir Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
  • Muniza Saeed Postgraduate Medical Institute Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Ghulam Mustafa Armed Forces Institute of Urology, Rawalpindi.
  • Seher Naeem CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry Lahore, Pakistan
  • Hifza Noor Lodhi Rashid Latif Khan University, Lahore.
  • Sehrish Ijaz Multan Medical &Dental College, Multan




Apple cider vinegar, Extra virgin olive oil, Type-2 diabetes


Introduction: Type-2 diabetes mellitus, a major public health problem, is caused by insulin resistance. In diabetics, chronic hyperglycemia results in formation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients is responsible for hepatic damage because it causes activation of several pro-inflammatory mediators in liver. Hepatic complications of diabetes include fatty liver disease, necrosis, cirrhosis, carcinoma and liver failure.

Aims & Objectives: To determine and compare the hepatoprotective effect of extra virgin olive oil and apple cider vinegar in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetic rat model.

Place and Duration of Study: This experimental study was conducted at Animal House of Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan from May 2021 to June 2021.

Material & Methods: In this study, 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups i.e., Group I was NC (negative control), Group II PC (positive control), Group III EVOO (Extra virgin olive oil) and Group IV (Apple cider vinegar), each group having 10 rats. Diabetes was induced in all rats except the rats of NC group at the start of the study by intraperitoneal administration of injection nicotinamide, followed by injection STZ after 15 minutes. Group III was given 1ml/100gBW/ day EVOO and Group IV was given 2ml/kgBW/day diluted ACV with distilled water in 1:5 orally for 4 weeks. Terminal sampling was performed at the end of the 4th week for estimation of liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) in serum. Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version 26. p value of ? 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: On comparison with PC group, both the treatment groups showed significant decrease in serum ALT levels with p values 0.026 for EVOO and < 0.001 for ACV. Serum ALP levels were also decreased significantly in both the treated groups with p value < 0.001 for EVOO as well as for the ACV group. However, reduction in serum AST levels was nonsignificant with p values 0.082 and 0.058 in EVOO and ACV groups respectively.

Conclusion: Both EVOO and ACV have hepatoprotective effect in Type-2 diabetic rats. However, ACV is more effective.


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How to Cite

Ruqaiyya Nazir, Muniza Saeed, Ghulam Mustafa, Seher Naeem, Hifza Noor Lodhi, Sehrish Ijaz. Hepatoprotective Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Apple Cider Vinegar in Type-2 Diabetic Rat Model. Proceedings S.Z.M.C [Internet]. 2024 Jan. 31 [cited 2024 May 18];38(1):31-6. Available from: http://proceedings-szmc.org.pk/index.php/szmc/article/view/423