Hba1c Levels an Indicator of Glycemic Control in Diabetics With and Without Retinopathy
Keywords:Diabetic retinopathy, HbA1c, poor glycemic control, inadequate glycemic control
Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy is a main cause of vision impairment and blindness due to uncontrolled diabetes. In Pakistan uncontrolled iabetes is on rise and one of the leading causes of preventable blindness.
Aims &Objectives: To determine HbA1c levels as an indicator of glycemic control in diabetics with and without retinopathy.
Place and duration of study: Department of Ophthalmology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore from -1st March 2020 to 30th April 2021.
Material &Methods: It is a comparative cross-sectional design in which one hundred and sixty diabetic retinopathy patients (group A) were compared with one hundred and sixty patients with no diabetic retinopathy (group B). Both groups were conveniently enrolled and their complete demographic, clinical, biochemical land fundoscopic data was documented on self -constructed, structured pro-form and analyzed on SPSS version 24, P-value<0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: The mean age in diabetic retinopathy group (group A) was 52±5.6 SD years with 50% (80/160) females. In no diabetic retinopathy group (group B) the mean age was 43±3.7 SD with 50.60% females (81/160). Age-wise difference between both groups was significant with p-value <0.05. There were equal number of patients from both genders. Majority of diabetic retinopathy patients belonged to age >55 years (Table -1).
In group A inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c=7.1-9) was found in 37.5% (60/160) while poor glycemic control (HbA1C >9) was found in 56.8% (91/160). In group B inadequate glycemic control was found in 23.75% (38/160) and poor glycemic control was found in 39.3% (63/160). There is a significant difference (p<0.05) in glycemic control among diabetics with and without retinopathy.
Conclusion: Deranged HbAIc Levels representative of overall fasting and post prandial poor glycemic control over 3 months were found to be significantly high in diabetic retinopathy patients as compared to diabetics without retinopathy enabling the physician to label these patients at high risk of retinopathy
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