Heavy Metal Ion and Haptoglobin Association with Career Duration in Pharmaceutical Industries: A Potential Occupational Hazard?


  • Uzma Jabbar Department of Biochemistry, Gujranwala Medical College, Gujranwala.
  • Muniza Qayyum Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Fatima Jinnah Medical University, Lahore.
  • Rukhshan Khurshid Department of IBB, University of Lahore, Lahore.
  • Maira Mahmood Department of Biochemistry, FMH Medical and Dental College Lahore, Lahore.




Lead, nickel, haptoglobin, Pharmaceutical workers


Introduction: Due to the increase growth of industrialization, the problem of environmental pollution has increased worldwide.

Aims & Objectives: A cross-sectional comparative study was designed to find out association between heavy metal ion (lead & nickel), haptoglobin and years of working in Pharmaceutical inddustries.

Place and duration of study: Pharmaceutical industry located at Quaid-e-Azam Industrial Estate Kot Lakhpat, Lahore, Punjab. Duration of study was January 2019 to June 2019.

Material & Methods: A total of 58 workers of a pharmaceutical industry were included in the study.35 age matched subjects with no history of any disease were taken as controls. A brief questionnaire was filled by each participant. Heavy metals present in serum sample of patients were digested by concentrated Nitric Acid. The digested samples were analyzed to estimate the level of lead and nickel using atomic absorption spectrophotometry available at the Department of IMBB University of Lahore.Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS 20, p ? 0.05  was taken as significant.

Results: Mean age of workers was 40.64 years with BMI 23.52 kg/m2. Their work of experience or duration of work in industries was 1-5 years, 6-10 years and > 10 years. Majority had dry cough followed by running nose, breathless end of day and headache. Levels of lead, nickel and haptoglobin was significantly raised compared to controls. Association of lead and nickel exposure with years of working experience showed that with increasing working experience or duration of workers the levels of lead and haptoglobin was markedly raise (5.9 ± 2.8 mg/l) as compared to the level of nickel (2.58 ± 1.05 mg/l).

Conclusion: Exposure of lead and nickel increases the level of haptoglobin and causes health issue in the workers of Pharmaceutical factors. Levels of these heavy metals increased in circulation of workers with the increasing of their duration of work or work experience.




How to Cite

Uzma Jabbar, Muniza Qayyum, Rukhshan Khurshid, Maira Mahmood. Heavy Metal Ion and Haptoglobin Association with Career Duration in Pharmaceutical Industries: A Potential Occupational Hazard?. Proceedings S.Z.M.C [Internet]. 2023 Apr. 28 [cited 2024 Mar. 3];37(2):29-34. Available from: https://proceedings-szmc.org.pk/index.php/szmc/article/view/370